- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
- Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
- Final approval of the version to be published; AND
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
CSE recommends that the contributions of all individuals associated with a manuscript should be published. Listing in the authorship by-line requires contributions in two or three of the following areas, the appropriate minimum depending on individual circumstances, including the number of authors. Some contributions formerly properly relegated to the acknowledgments section are included, whereas participation in only one category would mean that a contributor was acknowledged but not listed in the authors’ byline. Additional advice is provided on group authorship.