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Neonatal Care Studies



GA/BW Criteria




Daytime: Kelly Roczniac or Chris McKinlay 0274725099

After hours: Chris McKinlay 0274725099

<29 weeks

Inclusion: within 6 hours of blood culture taken for suspected LOS (>48 hours of age) or NEC. 

Exclusion: major congenital malformation(s) or chromosomal abnormalities.

Written informed consent prior to randomisation.

Parent Information and Consent Form  


Randomisation and Allocation Flowchart

Dosage Flowchart

Trial Schema

Prescribing Template

Parent Video

Study Manual



Daytime: Lisa Mravicich 021430564 or Chris McKinlay 0274725099

After hours: Chris McKinlay 0274725099

<28 weeks



  • <48 hours
  • Surfactant if given, <12 hours ago
  • Receiving mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube OR receiving non-invasive respiratory support including CPAP, nasal IPPV or nasal high flow AND a clinical decision to treat with exogenous surfactant


  • Previous steroids for prevention of lung disease (steroids for hypotension is OK)
  • Infant is considered non-viable
  • Major congenital anomaly that is likely to affect respiratory status
  • Severe pulmonary hypoplasia following PPROM with severe oligo/anhydramnios, where the clinician, based on clinical assessment on the first postnatal day, believes survival is unlikely
  • >1 dose of previous surfactant

Written informed consent prior to randomisation.



Flow Chart

Quick Guide

Consent and Forms

Blood Collection Schedule


Study Handbook

Health Professional Brochure



Daytime: Lisa Mravicich 021897982 or Chris McKinlay 0274725099

After hours: Chris McKinlay 0274725099

≥32 weeks


  • <8 weeks old


  • Previous exposure to paracetamol or ibuprofen
  • Chronic disease associated with limited life expectancy (<6 years)
  • Likely to leave NZ in first 6 years
Written informed consent prior to randomisation.

Daytime: Lisa Mravicich 021430564 

After hours: Chris McKinlay 0274725099

≥35 weeks


  • <8 days old
  • Admitted to Neonatal Care due to recurrent or severe episode(s)* of hypoglycaemia:
    • ≥3 episodes <2.6 mmol/L in 48 hours
    • Persisting episode of 1.2 to <2.0 mmol/L despite 2 doses of dextrose gel and feeding
    • Any episode <1.2 mmol/L
  • Receiving ongoing management for hypoglycaemia at the time of randomisation, e.g., IV dextrose, carbohydrate supplements, continuous or frequent feeding (≤2 hourly), or inability to wean off formula due to hypoglycaemia.   

*An episode is defined as consecutive blood glucose concentrations <2.6 mmol/L and ends when blood glucose is 2.6 mmol/L.


  • Confirmed major congenital malformation or chromosomal disorder
  • Suspected genetic syndrome associated with hypoglycaemia, e.g., Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome 
  • Gastrointestinal disorder likely to affect feed tolerance
  • Planned or likely neonatal surgery
  • Confirmed sepsis (culture of pathogenic organism from blood, CSF or urine)
  • Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy
  • Family history of congenital hyperinsulinism
  • Suspected inborn error of metabolism
  • Triplets (Twins not excluded)

Written informed consent prior to randomisation.



Trial Database

Contacts Database

Parent Information & Consent


How to randomise

Bedside guide & titration

Initial Schedule

Parent Brochure

Health Professional Brochure

CGM Insertion Video

CGM Troubleshooting



Daytime: Lisa Mravicich 021430564 or Chris McKinlay 0274725099

After hours: Chris McKinlay 0274725099

<32 weeks


  • 72 hours old
  • CPAP 8 cm cmH20
  • Caffeine ≥15 mg/kg/d
  • Significant ABD events in past 48 hours:
    • Hypercapnia (PC02 ≥8 kPa)
    • Hypoxaemia (peripheral oxygen saturation [Sp02] <90% for ≥30% of time over ≥6 h)
    • 1 ABD event requiring positive pressure inflation
    • 6 significant desaturations in 6 h (Sp02 <80% associated with bradycardia <100/min and requiring nursing intervention)


  • Treatment for proven clinical sepsis
  • Major congenital malformation
  • Grade 3-4 IVH in past 72 hours
  • Previous seizure
  • Previous doxapram

Written informed consent prior to randomisation.

Screening and Randomisation

Trial Database


Parent Information and Consent Form

Bedside schedule

RAD 8 oximetry quick guide

Daytime: Lisa Mravicich 021430564

After hours: Chris McKinlay 0274725099 Renuka Bhat

<32 weeks


  • Singleton pregnancy
  • Severe FGR, defined as: 
    1. AC ≤3rd centile for gestational age, OR
    2. AC <10th centile and ≥1 abnormal fetoplacental Doppler
      • Uterine artery pulsatility index ≥95th centile
      • Umbilical artery pulsatility index ≥95th centile or absent/reversed end-diastolic flow


  • Known fetal chromosomal or major structural anomaly, or non-placental cause of FGR
  • Immediate delivery indicated, e.g., absent A wave in ductus venosus, preterminal CTG or biophysical profile
  • Co-recruitment in another clinical trial where a pharmaceutical product or nutritional supplement impacting on oxidative stress is the trial intervention
  • Currently prescribed Fluvoxamine

Written informed consent prior to randomisation.



Trial Database


Parent Information pamphlet

Parent information and consent

Poster for Clinician

Study Video



  • Walters A, McKinlay C, Middleton P, Harding JE, Crowther CA. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for improving neonatal health outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022;4(4):CD003935.
  • Tan E, Hoare K, Riley J, Fernando K, Haskell L, McKinlay CJD, Dalziel SR, Braithwaite I. Panic or peace – prioritising infant welfare when medicating feverish infants: a grounded theory study of adherence in a paediatric clinical trial. BMC Pediatrics. 2022;22(195). DOI 10.1186/s12887-022-03230-4.
  • Edwards T, Alsweiler JM, Crowther CA, Edlin R, Gamble GD, Hegarty JE, Lin L, McKinlay CJD, Rogers JA, Thompson B, Wouldes TA, Harding JE. Prophylactic oral dextrose gel and neurosensory impairment at 2-year follow up of participants in the hPOD randomized trial. JAMA. 2022;327(12):1149-57.
  • Shah R, Dai DWT, Alsweiler JM, Brown GTL, Chase JG, Gamble GD, Harris DL, Keegan P, Nivins S, Wouldes TA, Thompson B, Turuwhenua J, Harding JE, McKinlay CJD. Association of neonatal hypoglycemia with academic performance in mid-childhood. JAMA. 2022;327(12):1158-70.
  • Walsh EPG, Alsweiler J, Ardern J, Hanning SM, Harding JE, McKinlay CJD. Glucagon for neonatal hypoglycaemia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Neonatology. 2022; DOI: 10.1159/000522415.
  • Guinsburg R, de Almeida MFB, Finan E, Perlman JM, Wyllie J, Liley HG, Wyckoff MH, Isayama T, on behalf of the International Liaison Committee On Resuscitation Neonatal Life Support Task Force (including McKinlay CJD). Tactile stimulation in newborn infants with inadequate respiration at birth: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. 2022;e2021055067. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2021-055067.
  • Nivins S, Kennedy E, Thompson B, Gamble GD, Alsweiler JM, Metcalfe R, McKinlay CJD, Harding JE. Associations between neonatal hypoglycaemia and brain volumes, cortical thickness and white matter microstructure in mid-childhood: An MRI study. NeuroImage: Clinical. 2022;33:102943.


  • Meyer MP, Nevill E. The Assisted Breathing before Cord Clamping (ABC) Study Protocol. Children 20218, 336. 
  • Liauw J, Groom, K, Ganzevoort W, Gluud C, McKinlay CJD, Sharp A, et al.Short-term outcomes of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for fetal growth restriction: a study protocol for a systematic review with individual participant data meta-analysis, aggregate meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis. Syst Rev. 2021;10(1):305. 
  • Wyckoff MH, Singletary EM, Soar J, Olasveengen TM, Greif R, Liley HG, et al. (including McKinlay CJD). 2021 International consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care science with treatment recommendations: Summary from the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; Neonatal Life Support; Education, Implementation, and Teams; First Aid Task Forces. Resuscitation. 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.10.040.
  • Wyckoff M, Singletary N, Soar J, Olasveengen T, Greif R, Liley H, et al. (including McKinlay CJD). 2021 International consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation. 2021;144:00–00. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000001017.
  • Laing D, Hanning S, Harding J, Mravicich L, McKinlay C. Diazoxide for the treatment of transitional neonatal hypoglycaemia: a systematic review J Neonatol. 2021; DOI: 10.1177/09732179.
  • Trevisanuto D, Roehr CC, Davis PG, Schmölzer GM, Wyckoff MH, Liley HG, Rabi Y, Weiner GM (including McKinlay CJD). Devices for administering ventilation at birth: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2021. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2021-050174.
  • Shah R, Brown G, Keegan P, Harding J, McKinlay CJD. School readiness screening and educational achievement at 9 to 10 years of age. J Paed Child Health. 2021; DOI: 1111/jpc.15616.
  • MacMahon D, Brabyn C, Dalziel S, McKinlay CJD, Tan E. Fever phobia in caregivers presenting to New Zealand emergency departments. Emerg Med Australas. 2021; DOI: 1111/1742-6723.13804.
  • McInnes A, McCowan L, Wilson J, Chow J, McKinlay C, Harwood M, Tutty S, Sadler L. Risk factors for perinatal mortality associated with spontaneous preterm birth at a large tertiary hospital in New Zealand: a case-control study. Pacific Journal of Reproductive Health. 2021;1(13):655-666.
  • Alsweiler J, Harris DL, Harding J, McKinlay CJD. Strategies to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in babies at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020; DOI:1016/S2352-4642(20)30387-4.
  • Chong CYL, Vatanen T, Alexander T, Bloomfield FH, O’Sullivan JM. Factors associated with the microbiome in moderate–late preterm babies: a cohort study from the DIAMOND randomized controlled trial. Front Cell Infect Microbiol.2021; DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2021.595323.
  • Galante L, Reynolds CM, Milan AM, Alexander T, Bloomfield FH, Jiang Y, Asadi S, Muelbert M, Cameron-Smith D, Pundir S, Vickers MH. Metabolic hormone profiles in breast milk from mothers of moderate-late preterm infants are associated with growth from birth to 4 months in a sex-specific manner. Front Nutr. 2021; DOI:10.3389/fnut.2021.641227.

  • Muelbert M, Alexander T, Pook C, Jiang Y, Harding JE, Bloomfield FH. Cortical oxygenation changes during gastric tube feeding in moderate- and late-preterm babies: A NIRS study. Nutrients. 2021;13(2):1–12.

  • Muelbert M, Galante L, Alexander T, Harding JE, Pook C, Bloomfield FH. Odor-active volatile compounds in preterm breastmilk. Pediatr Res. 2021; DOI:10.1038/s41390-021-01556-w.

  • McKinlay CJD, Alsweiler JM, Bailey MJ, Cutfield WS, Rout A, Harding JE. A better taxonomy for neonatal hypoglycemia is needed. J Perinatology. 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41372-021-01058-x.
  • Seidler AL, Gyte GML, Rabe H, Díaz-Rossello JL, Duley L, Aziz K, Testoni Costa-Nobre D, Davis PG, Schmölzer GM, Ovelman C, Askie LM, Soll R, on behalf of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Life Support Task Force (including McKinlay CJD). Umbilical cord management for newborns <34 weeks' gestation: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2021:e20200576.

  • Gomersall J, Berber S, Middleton P, McDonald SJ, Niermeyer S, El-Naggar W, Davis PG, Schmölzer GM, Ovelman C, Soll RF, on behalf of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Life Support Task Force (including McKinlay CJD). Umbilical cord management at term and late preterm birth: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2021; DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-015404.


  • Hofer OJ, McKinlay CJD, Tran T, Crowther CA. Antenatal corticosteroids, maternal body mass index and infant morbidity within the ASTEROID Trial. ANZJOG. 2020; DOI: 10.1111/ajo.13291.

  • Cowan F, McKinlay C, Taylor R, Wilson J, McAra-Couper J, Nick G, O’Brien A, McCowan L. Detection of small for gestational age babies and perinatal outcomes following implementation of the growth assessment protocol (GAP) at a New Zealand tertiary facility: an observational study. ANZJOG. 2020; DOI:10.1111/ajo.13283.
  • Tan E, Braithwaite I, McKinlay C, Riley J, Hoare K, Okesene-Gafa K, Semprini A, Sheridan N, Grant C, Johnson D, Weatherall M, Asher I, Beasley R, Dalziel SR. Randomised controlled trial of paracetamol or ibuprofen, as required for fever and pain in the first year of life, for prevention of asthma at age 6 years: paracetamol or ibuprofen in the primary prevention of asthma in Tamariki (PIPPA Tamariki) protocol. BMJ Open. 2020;10(12):e038296. 

  • Bailey MJ, Rout A, Harding JE, Alsweiler JM, Cutfield WS, McKinlay CJD. Prolonged transitional neonatal hypoglycaemia: characterisation of a clinical syndrome. J Perinatol. 2020; DOI:10.1038/s41372-020-00891-w.

  • Isayama T, Mildenhall L, Schmölzer GM, Kim HS, Rabi Y, Ziegler C, Liley HG, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Life Support Task Force . The route, dose, and interval of epinephrine for neonatal resuscitation: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2020;146(4):e20200586. 

  • Galante L, Reynolds CM, Milan AM, Alexander T, Bloomfield FH, Cameron-Smith D, Pundir S, Vickers MH on behalf of the DIAMOND study group (including Meyer MP). Preterm human milk: associations between perinatal factors and hormone concentrations throughout lactation. Ped Research. 2020; DOI:10.1038/s41390-020-1069-1.

  • Cormack BE, Jiang Y, Harding JE, Crowther CA, Bloomfield FH for the ProVIDe Trial Group (including Meyer MP). Neonatal refeeding syndrome and clinical outcome in extremely low birthweight babies – secondary analysis from the ProVIDe trial. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2020; DOI: 10.1002/jpen.1934.

  • Foglia EF, Weiner G, de Almeida MFB, Wyllie J, Wyckoff MH, Rabi Y, Guinsburg R, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Life Support Task Force (including CJD McKinlay). Duration of resuscitation at birth, mortality, and neurodevelopment: a systematic review. Pediatrics 2020;146(3):e20201449.

  • Manerkar K, Harding JE, Conlon C, McKinlay CJD. Development and validation of an automated algorithm to estimate infant nutrient intake from an electronic complementary food frequency questionnaire. Int J Child Health Nutr. 2020; DOI:10.6000/1929-4247.2020.09.04.1. 

  • Griffith RJ, Hegarty JE, Alsweiler JM, Gamble G, May R, McKinlay CJD, Thompson B, Wouldes TA, Harding JE. Two-year outcomes after dextrose gel prophylaxis for neonatal hypoglycaemia. Arch Dis Childhood Fetal Neonatal. 2002; DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2020-320305.
  • Tan E, Braithwaite I, McKinlay CJD, Dalziel SR. Comparison of acetaminophen (paracetamol) with ibuprofen for treatment of fever or pain in children younger than 2 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(10):e2022398.
  • Oliphant EA, McKinlay CJD, McNamara DG, Alsweiler JM. Caffeine prophylaxis to improve intermittent hypoxaemia in infants born late preterm: a randomised controlled dosage trial (Latte Dosage Trial). BMJ Open. 2020;10(10):e038271.
  • Wyckoff MH, Wyllie J, Aziz K, Fernanda de Almeida M, Fabres JW, Fawke J, Guinsburg R, Hosono S, Isayama T, Kapadia VS, Kim HS, Liley HG, McKinlay CJD, Mildenhall L, Perlman JM, Rabi Y, Roehr CC, Schmölzer GM, Szyld E, Trevisanuto D, Velaphi S, Weiner G, and on behalf of the Neonatal Life Support Collaborators. Neonatal life support: 2020 international consensus on science on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation. 2020;142:S185–S221. Also published in Resuscitation 2020; DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.01.038.

  • Trevisanuto D, Strand M, Kawakami, MD, Fabres J, Szyld E, Nation K, Wyckoff MH, Rabi Y, Lee H (including CJD McKinlay). Tracheal suctioning of meconium at birth for non-vigorous infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation. 2020; DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.01.038.

  • Crowther CA, McCowan LME, Rowan JA, Edlin R, McKinlay CJD. Lower versus higher diagnostic criteria for the detection of gestational diabetes for reducing maternal and perinatal morbidity: study protocol for the GEMS randomised trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020;20(1):547. 

  • Alexander T, Conlon CA, Gamble G, von Hurst PR, van Dorp L, Ichhpuniani B, Housh R, Ke P, Bloomfield FH. Body composition of New Zealand-born term babies differs by ethnicity, gestational age and sex. Early Human Dev. 2020;140:104924.

  • Bradford BF, Cronin RS, McKinlay CJD, Thompson JMD, McCowan LE. Maternally perceived fetal movement patterns: the influence of body mass index. Early Human Dev. 2020;140:104922.

  • Meyer MP, Chow SSW, Alsweiler J, Bourchier D, Broadbent R, Knight D, Lynn AM, Patel H. Probiotics for prevention of severe necrotizing enterocolitis: experience of New Zealand neonatal intensive care units. Front Pediatr. 2020; DOI:10.3389/fped.2020.00119.  

  • Cormack BE, Jiang Y, Harding JE, Crowther CA, Bloomfield FH for the ProVIDe Study Group (including Meyer MP). Relationships between neonatal nutrition and growth to 36 weeks’ corrected age in ELBW babies – secondary cohort analysis from the ProVIDe trial. Nutrients 2020;12(3):760.

  • Krishnan M, Murphy R, Okesene-Gafa KAM, Ji M, Thompson JMD, Taylor RS, Merriman TR, McCowan LME, McKinlay CJD. The Pacific-specific CREBRF rs373863828 allele protects against gestational diabetes mellitus in Māori and Pacific women with obesity. Diabetologia. 2020; DOI:10.1007/s00125-020-05202-8.
  • Tarnow-Mordi WO, for the LIFT Writing Committee and Collaborative Study Group (including CJD McKinlay). Lactoferrin supplementation in very low birthweight infants: a randomised trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020; 4;6: 444-454.  
  • Okesene-Gafa K, McCowan L, McKinlay C, Nielsen D, Wilson J, Taylor R, Wall C, Thompson J, Crowther C, Henning M.  Experiences of a multi-ethnic population with obesity receiving dietary interventions and probiotics in pregnancy: the Healthy Mums and Babies Randomised Trial. J Glob Health Rep. 2020; e2020027.
  • de Seymour JV, Jones MB, Okesene-Gafa KAM, McKinlay CJD, Taylor RS, Wall CR, McCowan LME. Omega-3 fatty acids to prevent preterm birth: An analysis of omega-3 fatty acid status in a population of pregnant women with obesity, at higher risk of preterm birth. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020; DOI:10.1038/s41430-020-0613-8.
  • Williams L, I’Anson J, Malarkey M, Purcell A, de Vries N, McKinlay C. Information sharing in neonatal intensive care: parental perceptions and preferences. J Paediatr Child Health. 2020; DOI:10.1111/JPC.14842.
  • Cartwright RD, Anderson NH, Sadler LC, Harding JE, McCowan LME, McKinlay CJD. Neonatal morbidity and small and large size for gestation: a comparison of birthweight centiles. J Perinatol. 2020; DOI:10.1038/s41372-020-0631-3.
  • Asadi S, Bloomfield FH, Alexander T, McKinlay CJD, Rush EC, Harding JE, for the hPOD, HUMBA and DIAMOND study teams  (including Meyer MP). Utility of published skinfold thickness equations for prediction of body composition in very young New Zealand children. Br J Nutr. 2020;121(6):670-677.

  • Cormack, BE, Jiang Y, Harding JE, Crowther CA, Lynn A, Nair A, Hewson M, Meyer M, Broadbent R, Webster D, Glamuzina E, Ryder B, Bloomfield FH. Plasma ammonia concentrations in extremely low birthweight infants in the first week after birth: secondary analysis from the ProVIDe randomized clinical trial. Pediatric Research. 2020;  DOI:10.1038/s41390-019-0730-z.

  • Manerkar K, Harding JE, Conlon C, McKinlay CJD. Effect of maternal gestational diabetes on infant feeding and growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2020; DOI:10.1017/S0007114520000264.
  • Anthony R, Riviere D, McKinlay CJD, Bloomfield FH. Adaptation for life after birth: a review of neonatal physiology. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 2020; DOI:10.1016/j.mpaic.2019.11.004.


  • Galante L, Vickers MH, Milan AM, Reynolds CM, Alexander T, Bloomfield FH, Pundir S. Feasibility of Standardized Human Milk Collection in Neonatal Care Units. Scientific Reports. 2019;9(1):14343.

  • Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH, Olasveengen TM, Singletary EM, Greif R, Aickin R, Bhanji F, Donnino MW, Mancini ME, Wyllie JP, Zideman D, Andersen LW, Atkins DL, Aziz K, Bendall J, Berg KM, Berry DC, Bigham BL, Bingham R, Couto TB, Böttiger BW, Borra V, Bray JE, Breckwoldt J, Brooks SC, Buick J, Callaway CW, Carlson JN, Cassan P, Castrén M, Chang WT, Charlton NP, Cheng A, Chung SP, Considine J, Couper K, Dainty KN, Dawson JA, de Almeida MF, de Caen AR, Deakin CD, Drennan IR, Duff JP, Epstein JL, Escalante R, Gazmuri RJ, Gilfoyle E, Granfeldt A, Guerguerian AM, Guinsburg R, Hatanaka T, Holmberg MJ, Hood N, Hosono S, Hsieh MJ, Isayama T, Iwami T, Jensen JL, Kapadia V, Kim HS, Kleinman ME, Kudenchuk PJ, Lang E, Lavonas E, Liley H, Lim SH, Lockey A, Lofgren B, Ma MH, Markenson D, Meaney PA, Meyran D, Mildenhall L, Monsieurs KG, Montgomery W, Morley PT, Morrison LJ, Nadkarni VM, Nation K, Neumar RW, Ng KC, Nicholson T, Nikolaou N, Nishiyama C, Nuthall G, Ohshimo S, Okamoto D, O'Neil B, Yong-Kwang Ong G, Paiva EF, Parr M, Pellegrino JL, Perkins GD, Perlman J, Rabi Y, Reis A, Reynolds JC, Ristagno G, Roehr CC, Sakamoto T, Sandroni C, Schexnayder SM, Scholefield BR, Shimizu N, Skrifvars MB, Smyth MA, Stanton D, Swain J, Szyld E, Tijssen J, Travers A, Trevisanuto D, Vaillancourt C, Van de Voorde P, Velaphi S, Wang TL, Weiner G, Welsford M, Woodin JA, Yeung J, Nolan JP, Hazinski MF. 2019 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations: Summary From the Basic Life Support; Advanced Life Support; Pediatric Life Support; Neonatal Life Support; Education, Implementation, and Teams; and First Aid Task Forces. Circulation. 2019;140(24):e826-e80.
  • Welsford M, Nishiyama C, Shortt C, Weiner G, Roehr CC, Isayama T, Dawson JA,, Wyckoff M, Rabi Y, on behalf of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Life Support Task Force (including Mildenhall L). Initial oxygen use for preterm newborn resuscitation: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2019;143(1):e20181828.

  • Welsford M, Nishiyama C, Shortt C, Isayama T, Dawson JA, Weiner G, Roehr CC, Wyckoff M, Rabi Y, on behalf of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Life Support Task Force (including Mildenhall L). Room air for initiating term newborn resuscitation: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2019;143(1):e20181825.

  • Cloete E, Gentles TL, Dixon LA, Webster DR, Agnew JD, Davidkova S, Alsweiler JM, Rogers J, Bloomfield FH (including Ardern J and McKinlay CJD). Feasibility study assessing equitable delivery of newborn pulse oximetry screening in New Zealand's midwifery-led maternity setting. BMJ Open. 2019;9(8):e030506.
  • Harris SL, McKinlay C, Groom K, Beker F, Kochar A, Gill A. Neonatal cardiovascular function after antenatal sildenafil for severe, early-onset intrauterine growth restriction: a substudy of the STRIDER NZAus randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatrics: X. 2019:100009.
  • Manzoni P, Militello MA, Rizzollo S, Tavella E, Messina A, Pieretto M et al (including Meyer M). Is lactoferrin more effective in reducing late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates fed formula than in those receiving mother's own milk? Secondary analyses of two multicenter randomized controlled trials. Am J Perinatol. 2019; 36(S 02):S120-S125.

  • Judd AL, Beck KL, McKinlay CJD, Jackson A, Conlon CA. Validation of a complementary food frequency questionnaire to assess infant nutrient intake. Maternal & Child Nutrition. 2019; 2019:e12879.
  • Cloete E, Gentles TL, Webster DR, Davidkova S, Dixon LA, Alsweiler JM, Bloomfield F, Pulse Oximetry Screening Steering Committee (including Ardern J and McKinlay CJD). Pulse oximetry screening in a midwifery-led maternity setting with high antenatal detection of congenital heart disease. Acta Paediatr. 2019; DOI:10.1111/apa.14934
  • Bradford BF, Cronin RS, McCowan LE, McKinlay CJ, Mitchell EA, Thompson JMD. Association between maternally perceived quality and pattern of fetal movements and late stillbirth. Scientific Reports. 2019;9:9815.
  • Manley BJ, McKinlay CJD. Antenatal and postnatal corticosteroids: Knowledge gaps and research priorities. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019; doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2019.05.006

  • Burakevych N, McKinlay CJD, Harris DL. Alsweiler JM, Harding JE. Factors influencing glycaemic stability after neonatal hypoglycaemia and relationship to neurodevelopmental outcome. Scientific Reports. 2019; DOI:10.1038/s41598-019-44609-1

  • McKinlay CJD, Manley BJ. Antenatal and postnatal corticosteroids: a swinging pendulum. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2019; DOI:10.1016/j.siny.2019.05.007.

  • Meyer MP, Nevill E. Optimizing cord clamping in preterm infants: One strategy does not fit all. Front Pediatr. 2019;7:46. 

  • Okesene-Gafa KA, Taylor RS, Li M, McKinlay CJD, Rush EC, Wall CR, Wilson J, Taylor R, Thompson JM, Crowther CA, McCowan LE. Dietary intervention and or probiotics for pregnant women with obesity: The Healthy Mums and Babies randomized controlled trial. Am J Obst Gynecol. 2019; DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2019.03.003

  • Shah R, Harding JE, Brown J, McKinlay CJD. Neonatal glycaemia and neurodevelopmental outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neonatology. 2019;115:116–26. 
  • Cartwright RD, Crowther CA, Anderson PJ, Harding JE, Doyle LW, McKinlay CJD. Association of fetal growth restriction with neurocognitive function after repeated antenatal betamethasone treatment vs placebo: Secondary analysis of the ACTORDS randomized clinical trial. JAMA Network Open. 2019;2(2):e187636. 

  • Griffith RJ, Harding JE, McKinlay CJD, Wouldes TA, Harris D, Alsweiler JM, for the CHYLD Study Team. Maternal glycemic control in diabetic pregnancies and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preschool aged children. A prospective cohort study. Early Human Dev. 2019;130:101-108.


  • Mildenhall LFJ, Isayama T. What to do if A + B doesn't work. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018;23(5):355-360.

  • Battin MR, McKinlay CJD. How do neonatal units within ANZNN manage infants with severe chronic lung disease still requiring major respiratory support at term? J Paed Child Health; 2018; DOI:10.1111/jpc.14261.

  • Shah R, McKinlay CJD, Harding JE. Neonatal hypoglycemia: continuous glucose monitoring. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2018; DOI:10.1097/mop.0000000000000592.

  • Mazahery H, von Hurst PR, McKinlay CJD, Cormack BE, Conlon CA. Air displacement plethysmography (Pea Pod) in full-term and pre-term infants: a comprehensive review of accuracy, reproducibility, and practical challenges. Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. 2018;4(1):12.
  • Culliney K, McCowan LME, Okesene-Gafa K, Murphy R, Rowan J, Taylor RS, McKinlay CJD. Accuracy of point-of-care HbA1c testing in pregnant women. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynecol. 2018; DOI:10.1111/ajo.12786.
  • Cartwright RD, Harding JE, Crowther CA, Cutfield WS, Battin MR, Dalziel SR, McKinlay CJD. Repeat antenatal betamethasone and cardiometabolic outcomes. Pediatrics. 2018;142(1):e20180522.

  • Manzoni P, Garcia Sanchez R, Meyer M  et al. Exposure to gastric acid inhibitors increases the risk of infections in preterm VLBW infants but concomitant administration of lactoferrin counteracts this effect. J Pediatr 2018;193:62-67.

  • Meyer MP, Nevill E, Wong MM. Provision of respiratory support compared to no respiratory support before cord clamping for preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;Issue 3. Art. No.: CD012491. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012491.pub2.

  • Bloomfield FH, Harding JE, Meyer MP,  Alsweiler JM, Jiang Y, Wall CR, Alexander T, on behalf of the DIAMOND Study Group. The DIAMOND trial – DIfferent Approaches to MOderate & late preterm Nutrition: Determinants of feed tolerance, body composition and development: protocol of a randomised trial. BMC Pediatrics 2018; 18: 220.

  • McKenzie L, Webber J, Aickin R, Considine J, Lawson A, Mildenhall L, Nation K, Nicholson T, Nuthall G, Scott T, Stuart M. Twenty-one years of saving lives: The New Zealand Resuscitation Council. NZ Med J. 2018 Jun 22;131(1477):9-11.
  • Aldabbagh A, Webb R, Mildenhall L, Best E. Neonatal meningococcal disease. J Paediatr Child Health. 2018;54(6):692-694.
  • Meyer MP, LS Owen, A Te Pas. Use of heated humidified gases for early stabilization of preterm infants: a meta-analysis. Front Pediatr. 2018;DOI:10.3389/fped.2018.00319 


  • Bradford BF, Thompson JMD, Heazell AEP, McCowan LME, McKinlay CJD. Understanding the associations and significance of fetal movements in overweight or obese pregnant women: a systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017;97(1):13-24.
  • Brown J, Alwan NA, West J, Brown S, McKinlay CJD, Farrar D, Crowther CA. Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2017; Issue 5. Art. No.: CD011970. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD011970.pub2.
  • McKinlay CJD, Cutfield WS, Battin MR, Dalziel SR, Crowther CA, Harding JE. Mid-childhood bone mass after repeat antenatal glucocorticoids: a randomized trial. Paediatrics. 2017;139(5):e20164250.

  • Meyer MP, Alexander T. Reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis and improved outcomes in preterm infants following routine supplementation with Lactobacillus GG in combination with bovine lactoferrin. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2017;10(3):249-255.

  • Liley HG, Mildenhall L, Morley P, Australian New Zealand Committee on Resuscitation. Australian and New Zealand Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Resuscitation guidelines 2016.J Paediatr Child Health. 2017;53(7):621-627. 

  • Mildenhall LFJ. Resuscitation of the newborn. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 2017;18(2):99-105.

  • Harding JE, Harris DL, Hegarty JE, Alsweiler JM, McKinlay CJD. An emerging evidence base for the management of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Early Hum Dev. 2017;108:61.

  • Rajput N, McKinlay CJD, Purdie G, Filipovska J, Battin M, Patel H, Tuohy P. Community-based screening to detect school readiness problems in very preterm children. J Paed Child Health. 2017;54(3):238-246.

  • McKinlay CJ, Alsweiler J, Anstice N, Burakevych N, Chakraborty A, Chase JG, Gamble G, Harris D, Jacobs R, Jiang Y, Paudel N, San Diego R, Thompson B, Wouldes T, Harding J. Association of neonatal glycemia with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4.5 years. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(10):1-12.


  • Riviere D, McKinlay CJD, Bloomfield FH. Adaptation for life after birth: a review of neonatal physiology. Anaesthesia Intensive Care Medicine; 2016;18(2):59-67.
  • Okesene-Gafa K, Li M, Taylor RS, Thompson JMD, Crowther CA, McKinlay CJD, McCowan LME. A randomised controlled demonstration trial of multifaceted nutritional intervention and or probiotics: the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16(1):373.
  • Crowther CA, Anderson PJ, McKinlay CJD, Harding JE, Ashwood PJ, Haslam RR, Robinson JS, Doyle LW, for the ACTORDS Follow Up Group. Mid-childhood outcomes of repeat antenatal corticosteroids: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2016;138(4):pii;e20160947.

  • Mank A, van Zanten HA, Meyer MP, Pauws S, Lopiore E, te Pas AB. Hypothermia in preterm infants in the first hours after birth: occurrence, course and risk factors. PLoS One. 2016; 11(11): e0164817.

  • Anderson NH, Sadler LC, McKinlay CJD, McCowan LME. INTERGROWTH 21st versus customized birthweight standards for identification of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 214(4)590.e.7.

  • Burakevych N, McKinlay CJ, Alsweiler JM, Wouldes TA, Harding JE. Pre-school screening for developmental and emotional health: comparison with neurodevelopmental assessment. J Paediatr Child Health. 2016;52(6):600-7.


  • McKinlay CJD, Cutfield WS, Battin MR, Dalziel SR, Crowther CA, Harding JE. Cardiovascular risk factors in children after repeat doses of antenatal glucocorticoids: an RCT. Pediatrics. 2015;135(2):e405-15.
  • Meyer MP, Hou D, Ishrar N, Stoppelenburg-Dito IM, tePas AB. The effect of initial respiratory support with cold dry gas versus heated humidified gas on admission temperature of preterm infants. J Pediatr  2015;166:245-250.

  • Nevill E, Meyer MP. Effect of delayed cord clamping on breathing and transition at birth in very preterm infants.  Early Hum Dev. 2015;91:407-11.
  • Wyllie J, Perlman JM, Kattwinkel J, Wyckoff MH, Aziz K, Guinsburg R, Kim HS, Liley HG, Mildenhall L, Simon WM, Szyld E, Tamura M, Velaphi S; Neonatal Resuscitation Chapter Collaborators.Resuscitation. Part 7: Neonatal resuscitation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. 2015 Oct;95:e169-201. 
  • McKinlay CJD, Alsweiler JA, Ansell JM, Anstice NS, Chase JG, Gamble GD, Harris DL, Jacob RJ, Jiang Y, Paudel N, Signal M, Thompson B, Wouldes TA, Yu TY, Harding JE, for the CHYLD Study Group. Neonatal glycemia and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1507-18.
  • Burakevych N, McKinlay CJ, Alsweiler JM, Harding JE, CHYLD Study Team. Accuracy of caregivers' recall of hospital admissions: implications for research. Acta Paediatr. 2015;104(11):1199-204.
  • Crowther CA, McKinlay CJD, Middleton P, Harding JE. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for improving neonatal health outcomes. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2015; Issue 7. Art. No.: CD003935. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003935.pub4.


  • Darlow BA, Marschner SL, Donoghoe M, Battin MR, Broadbent RS, Elder MJ, Hewson MP, Meyer MP, Ghadge A, Graham P, McNeill NJ, Kuschel CA, Tarnow-Mordi WO. Benefits Of Oxygen Saturation Targeting-New Zealand (BOOST-NZ) Collaborative Group. Randomized controlled trial of oxygen saturation targets in very preterm infants: two year outcomes. J Pediatr. 2014; pii: S0022-3476(14)00023-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.01.017.
  • Manzoni P, Meyer M, Stolfi I, Rinaldi M, Cattani S, Pugni L, Romeo MG, Messner H, Decembrino L, Laforgia N, Vagnarelli F, Memo L, Bordignon L, Maule M, Gallo E, Mostert M, Quercia M, Bollani L, Pedicino R, Renzullo L, Betta P, Ferrari F, Alexander T, Magaldi R, Farina D, Mosca F, Stronati M. Bovine lactoferrin supplementation for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial. Early Hum Dev 2014;90 Suppl 1:S60-5. DOI:10.1016/S0378-3782(14)70020-9. 
  • Meyer MP. Retinopathy of prematurity: etiology and risk factors. Int J Medical Biological Frontiers 2014; 20:195-225. 


  • Meyer MP. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and erythropoietin. Neonatology 2013;103:123.
  • Bushell T, McHugh C, Meyer MP. A comparison of two nasal continuous positive airway pressure interfaces: a randomized crossover study. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2013;6:53-59.
  • Meyer M, Manzoni P. Lactobacillus GG as probiotic for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis or late onset sepsis in preterm infants: an updated meta-analysis. Early Hum Dev  2013;89s1:S84.
  • The BOOST II United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand Collaborative Groups Stenson BJ, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Darlow BA, Simes J, Juszczak E, Askie L, Battin M, Bowler U, Broadbent R, Cairns P, Davis PG, Desphande S, Donoghoe M, Doyle LW, Fleck B, Ghadge A, Hague W, Halliday H, Hewson M, King A, Kirby A, Marlow N, Meyer M, Morley C, Simmer K, Tin W, Wardle SP, Brocklehurst P. Oxygen saturation and outcomes in preterm infants N Engl J Med. 2013; 368:2094-104. 
  • Dargaville PA, Copnell B, Mills JF, Haron I, Lee JK, Tingay DG, Rohana J, Mildenhall LF, Jeng MJ, Narayanan A, Battin MR, Kuschel CA, Sadowsky JL, Patel H, Kilburn CJ, Carlin JB, Morley CJ, LessMAS Trial Study Group. Fluid recovery during lung lavage in meconium aspiration syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2013 Feb;102(2):e90-3.
  • Mildenhall LF, Huynh TK. Factors modulating effective chest compressions in the neonatal period. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013;18(6):352-6.


  • Meyer MP, Mildenhall L. Delayed cord clamping and blood flow in the superior vena cava in preterm infants: an observational study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal. 2012;97:F484-F486. 
  • Meyer MP, Manzoni P. Lactobacillus GG for preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal. 2012;97:1 F70-F74.  
  • Shearman AD, Hou D, Dunster KR, Jardine L. Heating of gases during neonatal resuscitation: a bench study. Resuscitation. 2012 Mar;83(3):369-73. 
  • Hou D, Shetty U, Phillips M, Gray PH. Cerebellar haemorrhage in the extremely preterm infant. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012 Apr;48(4):350-5.

Wiki page owner: Dr Chris McKinlay,

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